Insights Into the Standard Echocardiographic Views From Multimodality Imaging: Ventricles, Pericardium, Valves, and Atria

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2023 Dec;36(12):1266-1289. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2023.07.011. Epub 2023 Aug 6.


The widespread use of cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients undergoing echocardiography presents an opportunity to correlate the images side by side. Accordingly, the aim of this report is to review aspects of the standard echocardiographic examination alongside similarly oriented images from the two tomographic imaging modalities. It is hoped that this exercise will enhance understanding of the structures depicted by echocardiography as they relate to other structures in the thorax. In addition to reviewing basic cardiac anatomy, the authors take advantage of these correlations with computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to better understand the issue of foreshortening, a common pitfall in transthoracic echocardiography. The authors also highlight an important role that three-dimensional echocardiography can potentially play in the future, especially as advances in image processing permit higher fidelity multiplanar reconstruction images.

Keywords: Cardiac CT; Echocardiography; Foreshortening; Pseudodyskinesis; cMR.

MeSH terms

  • Echocardiography* / methods
  • Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional* / methods
  • Heart Atria / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Pericardium / diagnostic imaging