Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted disease in Western Society today and is a major cause of salpingitis and tubal infertility. However, the frequency with which it produces upper genital tract infection in asymptomatic women has not been determined. Endometrial, endocervical, and urethral cultures for C. trachomatis were obtained from 60 women who were at risk for chlamydial infection but who did not have evidence of endometritis or salpingitis on physical examination. Chlamydia was isolated from the lower genitourinary tract in 26 (43%) and from the endometrium in 12 (20%). Thus 12 of 29 (41%) women infected with C. trachomatis had endometrial infections. Upper genital infections appear to be common in women at risk for chlamydial infection, and spread to the upper tract may occur shortly after the infection is acquired.