The proper regulation of transcription is essential for maintaining genome integrity and executing other downstream cellular functions1,2. Here we identify a stable association between the genome-stability regulator sensor of single-stranded DNA (SOSS)3 and the transcription regulator Integrator-PP2A (INTAC)4-6. Through SSB1-mediated recognition of single-stranded DNA, SOSS-INTAC stimulates promoter-proximal termination of transcription and attenuates R-loops associated with paused RNA polymerase II to prevent R-loop-induced genome instability. SOSS-INTAC-dependent attenuation of R-loops is enhanced by the ability of SSB1 to form liquid-like condensates. Deletion of NABP2 (encoding SSB1) or introduction of cancer-associated mutations into its intrinsically disordered region leads to a pervasive accumulation of R-loops, highlighting a genome surveillance function of SOSS-INTAC that enables timely termination of transcription at promoters to constrain R-loop accumulation and ensure genome stability.
© 2023. The Author(s).