Amygdalin Reverses Macrophage PANoptosis Induced by Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2023 Oct 28;33(10):1281-1291. doi: 10.4014/jmb.2306.06030. Epub 2023 Jul 28.


Infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) pose a critical concern for medical institutions as they can lead to high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, amygdalin exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, as well as other potentials. However, whether it could influence the drug-resistant E. coli-infected cells remained unanswered. Amygdalin was therefore tested in a cellular model in which human macrophages were exposed to resistant E. coli. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Western immunoblotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to quantify interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages was detected by ROS kit. The expression of panapoptotic proteins in macrophages was measured by qRT-PCR and Western immunoblotting. Drug-Resistant E. coli inhibited cell viability and enhanced apoptosis in the cellular model. In cells treated with amygdalin, this compound can inhibit cell apoptosis and reduce the expression of pro - inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-6. Additionally, it decreases the production of PANoptosis proteins, Furthermore, amygdalin lowered the levels of reactive oxygen species induced by drug-resistant E. coli, in cells, demonstrating its antioxidant effects. Amygdalin, a drug with a protective role, alleviated cell damage caused by drug-resistant E. coli in human macrophages by inhibiting the PANoptosis signaling pathway.

Keywords: Drug-resistant E. coli; Nrf2; PANoptosis; amygdalin.

MeSH terms

  • Amygdalin* / pharmacology
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-18
  • Interleukin-6 / genetics
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Amygdalin
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-18
  • Reactive Oxygen Species