Serological Biomarkers of Chronic Migraine

Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2023 Oct;27(10):531-542. doi: 10.1007/s11916-023-01154-x. Epub 2023 Aug 10.


Purpose of review: Chronic migraine (CM) is a chronic form of migraine that differs from episodic migraine (EM) in terms of prevalence, comorbidities, response to treatment, and biomarkers. The aim of this review was to summarize the recent findings on serological biomarkers of CM.

Recent findings: Neuronal, inflammatory, and vascular markers have been investigated to assess their diagnostic and prognostic ability and treatment effectiveness. Several markers showed significant alterations according to disease status and treatment response in CM. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), glutamate, and adiponectin appear to be the most promising blood biomarkers for CM. Most studies have shown altered ictal and interictal levels of these markers in CM compared with those in EM and controls. Additionally, they showed a significant association with treatment outcomes. Total adiponectin and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were less studied as biomarkers of CM than CGRP and glutamate levels but showed promising results. The development of suitable biomarkers could revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of CM and ultimately decrease the disability and societal costs of the disease.

Keywords: Biomarker; Chronic headache; Chronic migraine; Headache; Migraine; Neuropeptide.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide*
  • Glutamates
  • Humans
  • Migraine Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Migraine Disorders* / epidemiology


  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Glutamates