Arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse and mitral annular disjunction: pathophysiology, risk stratification, and management

Eur Heart J. 2023 Sep 1;44(33):3121-3135. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehad491.


Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most frequent valve condition but remains a conundrum in many aspects, particularly in regard to the existence and frequency of an arrhythmic form (AMVP) and its link to sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, the presence, frequency, and significance of the anatomic functional feature called mitral annular disjunction (MAD) have remained widely disputed. Recent case series and cohorts have shattered the concept that MVP is most generally benign and have emphasized the various phenotypes associated with clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias, including AMVP. The definition, evaluation, follow-up, and management of AMVP represent the focus of the present review, strengthened by recent coherent studies defining an arrhythmic MVP phenotypic that would affect a small subset of patients with MVP at concentrated high risk. The role of MAD in this context is of particular importance, and this review highlights the characteristics of AMVP phenotypes and MAD, their clinical, multimodality imaging, and rhythmic evaluation. These seminal facts lead to proposing a risk stratification clinical pathway with consideration of medical, rhythmologic, and surgical management and have been objects of recent expert consensus statements and of proposals for new research directions.

Keywords: Mitral valve prolapse; Sudden cardiac death; Syncope; Ventricular arrhythmia; Ventricular fibrillation; Ventricular tachycardia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / complications
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / therapy
  • Humans
  • Mitral Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve Insufficiency* / complications
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse* / complications
  • Risk Assessment