D-dimer to fibrinogen ratio predicts early neurological deterioration in ischemic stroke with atrial fibrillation

Thromb Res. 2023 Sep:229:219-224. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2023.07.014. Epub 2023 Jul 31.


Introduction: The D-dimer to fibrinogen ratio (DFR) is a good indicator of clot-producing activity in thrombotic disease, but its clinical usefulness in stroke patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) has not been studied. We evaluated the association between the DFR and early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with NVAF.

Methods: We included consecutive AIS patients with NVAF between 2013 and 2015 from the registry of a real-world prospective cohort from 11 large centers in South Korea. END was defined as an increase ≥2 in the total NIHSS score or ≥ 1 in the motor NIHSS score within the first 72 h of admission. The DFR was calculated as follows: DFR = D-dimer (mg/L)/fibrinogen (mg/dL) x 100.

Results: A total of 1018 AIS patients with NVAF were evaluated. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the highest DFR tertile was closely associated with END (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.69). Hypertension (aOR = 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.09-2.70), initial NIHSS score (aOR = 1.05, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.07) and use of anticoagulants (aOR = 0.41, 95 % CI: 0.28-0.60) were also correlated with END. In addition to END, the DFR was correlated with discharge NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and the 3-month mRS score.

Conclusions: High DFR values were associated with END in AIS patients with NVAF. As the DFR is an indicator directly related to the main pathological mechanism of NVAF patients (fibrinolysis and coagulation), it may be useful in predicting their prognosis.

Keywords: Coagulopathy; D-dimer; Fibrinolysis; Ischemic stroke; Prognosis.

MeSH terms

  • Atrial Fibrillation* / complications
  • Brain Ischemia* / complications
  • Fibrinogen
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Stroke*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke* / complications


  • fibrin fragment D
  • Fibrinogen