Common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, is an orphan crop domesticated in southwest China that exhibits heterostylous self-incompatibility. Here we present chromosome-scale assemblies of a self-compatible F. esculentum accession and a self-compatible wild relative, Fagopyrum homotropicum, together with the resequencing of 104 wild and cultivated F. esculentum accessions. Using these genomic data, we report the roles of transposable elements and whole-genome duplications in the evolution of Fagopyrum. In addition, we show that (1) the breakdown of heterostyly occurs through the disruption of a hemizygous gene jointly regulating the style length and female compatibility and (2) southeast Tibet was involved in common buckwheat domestication. Moreover, we obtained mutants conferring the waxy phenotype for the first time in buckwheat. These findings demonstrate the utility of our F. esculentum assembly as a reference genome and promise to accelerate buckwheat research and breeding.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.