Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate in combination with L-N-monomethyl arginine alleviates Staphylococcus aureus infection via regulation of CXCL8/CXCR1 axis in peritoneal macrophages in vitro

Microb Pathog. 2023 Oct:183:106294. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2023.106294. Epub 2023 Aug 9.


The CXCL8/CXCR1 axis in conjoint with the free radicals and anti-oxidants dictates the severity of inflammation caused by the bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus. S.aureus mediated inflammatory processes is regulated by NF-κB and its product, iNOS. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of inhibition of NF-κB and iNOS on CXCL8/CXCR1, alteration in M1/M2 polarization of macrophages and associated inflammatory responses during S.aureus infection in vitro. For this, the murine peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor, Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and iNOS inhibitor, L-N-monomethyl arginine (LNMMA), either alone or in combination, followed by time-dependent S.aureus infection. The chemotactic migrations of macrophages were determined by the agarose spot assay. The iNOS, NF-κB and CXCR1 protein expressions were evaluated. The ROS level (superoxide, H2O2, NO) and antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, GSH, arginase) were measured. The intra-macrophage phagoctyic activity had been analyzed by confocal microscopy. S.aureus activated macrophages showed increased iNOS expression that symbolizes M1 characterization of macrophages. The results suggest that the combination treatment of LNMMA + PDTC was effective in diminution of CXCL8 production and CXCR1 expression through downregulation of NF-κB and iNOS signaling pathway. Consequently, there was decrement in macrophage migration, reduced ROS generation, elevated antioxidant enzyme activity as well as bacterial phagocytosis at 90 min post bacterial infection. The increased arginase activity further proves the switch from pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 polarization of macrophages. Concludingly, the combination of PDTC + LNMMA could resolve S.aureus mediated inflammation through mitigation of CXCL8/CXCR1 pathway switching from M1 to M2 polarization.

Keywords: CXCL8; CXCR1; Inflammation; NF-κB signaling pathway; Peritoneal macrophage; Staphylococcus aureus.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Arginase / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal* / microbiology
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Receptors, Interleukin-8A / metabolism
  • Staphylococcal Infections* / microbiology
  • Staphylococcus aureus / metabolism
  • omega-N-Methylarginine / metabolism


  • prolinedithiocarbamate
  • omega-N-Methylarginine
  • pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid
  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • NF-kappa B
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Arginase
  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Interleukin-8A