Efficiency of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum JT-PN39 and Paenibacillus motobuensis JT-A29 for Fermented Coffee Applications and Fermented Coffee Characteristics

Foods. 2023 Jul 29;12(15):2894. doi: 10.3390/foods12152894.

Abstract

To develop a process for low-cost and ecologically friendly coffee fermentation, civet gut bacteria were isolated and screened to be used for fermentation. Among 223 isolates from civet feces, two bacteria exhibited strong protease, amylase, lipase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. By analyzing 16S rDNA phylogeny, those bacteria were identified to be Lactiplantibacillus plantarum JT-PN39 (LP) and Paenibacillus motobuensis JT-A29 (PM), where their potency (pure or mixed bacterial culture) for fermenting 5 L of arabica parchment coffee in 48-72 h was further determined. To characterize the role of bacteria in coffee fermentation, growth and pH were also determined. For mixed starter culture conditions, the growth of PM was not detected after 36 h of fermentation due to the low acid conditions generated by LP. Coffee quality was evaluated using a cupping test, and LP-fermented coffee expressed a higher cupping score, with a main fruity and sour flavor, and a dominant caramel-honey-like aroma. Antioxidant and anti-foodborne pathogenic bacteria activity, including total phenolic compounds of PM and LP fermented coffee extracts, was significantly higher than those of ordinary coffee. In addition, LP-fermented coffee expressed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activities among the fermented coffee. The toxicity test was examined in the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell, and all fermented coffee revealed 80-90% cell variability, which means that the fermentation process does not generate any toxicity. In addition, qualifications of non-volatile and volatile compounds in fermented coffee were examined by LC-MS and GC-MS to discriminate the bacterial role during the process by PCA plot. The flavors of fermented coffee, including volatile and non-volatile compounds, were totally different between the non-fermented and fermented conditions. Moreover, the PCA plot showed slightly different flavors among fermentations with different starter cultures. For both the cupping test and biological activities, this study suggests that LP has potential for health benefits in coffee fermentation.

Keywords: Lactiplantibacillus plantarum; Paenibacillus motobuensis; enzyme; fermented coffee.