Photocatalysts Based on Graphite-like Carbon Nitride with a Low Content of Rhodium and Palladium for Hydrogen Production under Visible Light

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2023 Jul 26;13(15):2176. doi: 10.3390/nano13152176.


In this study, we proposed photocatalysts based on graphite-like carbon nitride with a low content (0.01-0.5 wt.%) of noble metals (Pd, Rh) for hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. As precursors of rhodium and palladium, labile aqua and nitrato complexes [Rh2(H2O)8(μ-OH)2](NO3)4∙4H2O and (Et4N)2[Pd(NO3)4], respectively, were proposed. To obtain metallic particles, reduction was carried out in H2 at 400 °C. The synthesized photocatalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The activity of the photocatalysts was tested in the hydrogen evolution from aqueous and aqueous alkaline solutions of TEOA under visible light with a wavelength of 428 nm. It was shown that the activity for the 0.01-0.5% Rh/g-C3N4 series is higher than in the case of the 0.01-0.5% Pd/g-C3N4 photocatalysts. The 0.5% Rh/g-C3N4 sample showed the highest activity per gram of catalyst, equal to 3.9 mmol gcat-1 h-1, whereas the most efficient use of the metal particles was found over the 0.1% Rh/g-C3N4 photocatalyst, with the activity of 2.4 mol per gram of Rh per hour. The data obtained are of interest and can serve for further research in the field of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution using noble metals as cocatalysts.

Keywords: g-C3N4; hydrogen evolution; noble metals; palladium; photocatalysis; rhodium.