A novel pathogenic variant c.262delA in PBX1 causing oligomeganephronia identified using whole-exome sequencing and a literature review

Am J Med Genet A. 2023 Dec;191(12):2850-2855. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63364. Epub 2023 Aug 12.


Oligomeganephronia (OMN) is a rare congenital renal hypoplasia reported more often in children than in adults. The diagnosis of OMN relies on renal biopsy and exhibits a significant reduction in the number of glomeruli and pronounced glomerular hypertrophy. Here, we report the case of an 8-year-old boy with recurrent proteinuria and abnormal external ears. A renal biopsy revealed large and rare glomeruli. The histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of OMN. Whole-exome sequencing of the patient revealed a new pathogenic variant in PBX1 (hg19, NM_002585, c.262delA, p.Thr88Glnfs*3). The PBX1 gene encodes a transcription factor whose pathogenic variants can result in congenital renal and urinary system anomalies, with or without hearing loss, abnormal ears, and developmental retardation (CAKUTED). This is the first report to detect PBX1 pathogenic variants in children with OMN, a novel phenotype of human PBX1 pathogenic variants. We performed functional prediction analyses of deletions in the corresponding structural domains. We summarized 27 cases of PBX1 single pathogenic variants reported between 2003 and 2023 in terms of truncating and missense pathogenic variants, which can deepen our understanding of the PBX1 structural domain and expand our knowledge of the PBX1 genotype and phenotype.

Keywords: PBX1; homeodomain; metanephric; oligomeganephronia; renal hypoplasia.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Exome Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases* / pathology
  • Kidney* / abnormalities
  • Male
  • Proteinuria / pathology
  • Transcription Factors


  • Transcription Factors