The current findings in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis

Auris Nasus Larynx. 2024 Feb;51(1):51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.08.002. Epub 2023 Aug 11.


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Traditional classification is denoted by the presence (CRSwNP) or absence of nasal polyps (CRSsNP). Particularly, CRSwNP is distinguished by the presence of infiltrating cells and inflammatory markers in the nasal mucosa. Patients with CRSwNP in Western countries predominantly display a type 2 endotype, whereas those in Asian regions display a mixed type 2 endotype. Nevertheless, recent transcriptome analyses have revealed two types of nasal polyps - type 2 and non-type 2 polyps, suggesting that geographical differences in endotypes likely resulted from the different proportions of each endotype. Moreover, various endotypes of CRSsNP have been identified, making phenotype a crucial factor for predicting treatment efficacy. Type 2 endotypes, designated as eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) in Japan, are characterized by severe eosinophilic infiltration into the paranasal sinus tissue and are particularly refractory. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in ECRS. We also provide recent findings on the involvement of nasal epithelial cells in pathogenesis.

Keywords: ECRS; Endotype; Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis; Epithelial cell; JESREC study; Type 2 inflammation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Humans
  • Nasal Mucosa / pathology
  • Nasal Polyps* / complications
  • Nasal Polyps* / genetics
  • Nasal Polyps* / pathology
  • Rhinitis* / genetics
  • Rhinosinusitis*
  • Sinusitis* / genetics