Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study

Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Jun;136(6):772-6. doi: 10.1176/ajp.136.6.772.


Tardive dyskinesia is thought to reflect increased dopaminergic activity of the central nervous system. To compensate for this by increasing CNS cholinergic tone, the authors administered oral choline and its natural dietary source, lecithin, to 5 men with mild to severe tardive dyskinesia in a nonblind trial. Both choline and lecithin increased serum choline levels and improved abnormal movements in all patients. Lecithin had fewer adverse effects.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Choline / blood
  • Choline / therapeutic use*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / blood
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phosphatidylcholines / therapeutic use*
  • Pilot Projects


  • Phosphatidylcholines
  • Choline