Objectives: Opportunistic quantitative computed tomography (oQCT) derived from non-dedicated routine CT has demonstrated high accuracy in diagnosing osteoporosis and predicting incident vertebral fractures (VFs). We aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of oQCT screening compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the standard of care for osteoporosis screening.
Methods: Three screening strategies ("no osteoporosis screening", "oQCT screening", and "DXA screening") after routine CT were simulated in a state-transition model for hypothetical cohorts of 1,000 patients (women and men aged 65 years) over a follow-up period of 5 years (base case). The primary outcomes were the cumulative costs and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) estimated from a U.S. health care perspective for the year 2022. Cost-effectiveness was assessed based on a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $70,249 per QALY. The secondary outcome was the number of prevented VFs. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the models' robustness.
Results: Compared to DXA screening, oQCT screening increased QALYs in both sexes (additional 2.40 per 1,000 women and 1.44 per 1,000 men) and resulted in total costs of $3,199,016 and $950,359 vs. $3,262,934 and $933,077 for women and men, respectively. As a secondary outcome, oQCT screening prevented 2.6 and 2.0 additional VFs per 1,000 women and men, respectively. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, oQCT screening remained cost-effective in 88.3% (women) and 90.0% (men) of iterations.
Conclusion: oQCT screening is a cost-effective ancillary approach for osteoporosis screening and has the potential to prevent a substantial number of VFs if considered in daily clinical practice.
Keywords: cost-effectiveness analysis; fracture prevention; opportunistic QCT; osteoporosis; screening.
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