Nutrition and thyroid disease

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2023 Dec 1;30(6):324-329. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000831. Epub 2023 Aug 13.


Purpose of review: The aim of this review was to determine, based on the most recent findings, the involvement of trace elements and vitamins critical for thyroid function and combating thyroid disease.

Recent findings: Nutritional guidance is pivotal to reducing the risk of thyroid disease and to managing it when it arises, this meaning the prescription of diets rich in such micronutrients as iodine, selenium, iron, zinc, and vitamins B12, D3, and A. Most of the above micronutrients are good antioxidants, building up an anti-inflammatory profile, reducing thyroid autoantibodies and body fat, and improving thyroid function. Diets are increasingly being prescribed, especially for those suffering from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Notable among prescribed diets is the Mediterranean diet. Rich in critical elements, it benefits patients at the immune endocrine and biomolecular levels.

Summary: Importantly, it is likely that widespread adherence to the Mediterranean diet, together with a reduction of meat consumption and potential elimination of gluten and lactose may improve inflammation and have an impact on public health while possibly diminishing thyroiditis symptoms. It is hoped that this review can direct policymakers towards undertaking cost-effective interventions to minimize deficiency of essential minerals and vitamins and thus protect both general and thyroid health.