Anti-inflammatory potential of platinum nanozymes: mechanisms and perspectives

Nanoscale. 2023 Sep 14;15(35):14284-14300. doi: 10.1039/d3nr03016d.


Inflammation is a complex process of the body in response to pathogen infections or dysregulated metabolism, involving the recruitment and activation of immune system components. Repeated dangerous stimuli or uncontrolled immune effector mechanisms can result in tissue injury. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play key roles in physiological cell signaling as well as in the destruction of internalized pathogens. However, aberrant ROS production and release have deleterious effects on the surrounding environment, making ROS regulation a priority to reduce inflammation. Most of the current anti-inflammatory therapies rely on drugs that impair the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Nevertheless, increasing the enzymatic activity to reduce ROS levels could be an alternative or complementary therapeutic approach to decrease inflammation. Nanozymes are nanomaterials with high catalytic activity that mimic natural enzymes, allowing biochemical reactions to take place. Such functional particles typically show different and regenerable oxidation states or catalytically reactive surfaces offering long-term activity and stability. In this scenario, platinum-based nanozymes (PtNZs) exhibit broad and efficient catalytic functionalities and can reduce inflammation mainly through ROS scavenging, e.g. by catalase and superoxide dismutase reactions. Dose-dependent biocompatibility and immune compatibility of PtNZs have been shown in different cells and tissues, both in vitro and in vivo. Size/shape/surface engineering of the nanozymes could also potentiate their efficacy to act at different sites and/or steps of the inflammation process, such as cytokine removal or specific targeting of activated leukocytes. In the present review, we analyze key inflammation triggering processes and the effects of platinum nanozymes under exemplificative inflammatory conditions. We further discuss potential platinum nanozyme design and improvements to modulate and expand their anti-inflammatory action.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Nanostructures*
  • Platinum*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Platinum
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents