Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Brain Metastases

Clin Breast Cancer. 2023 Dec;23(8):825-831. doi: 10.1016/j.clbc.2023.07.008. Epub 2023 Aug 4.


The treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has improved over the past decade, however prognosis continues to be mitigated by the fact that about 1 in 5 patients with MBC will develop brain metastases (BrM) during their metastatic disease course. 1 This number is even higher for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), with studies showing as high as 40% of patients developing BrM. 2, 3 Studies have shown that TNBC portends a worse survival after a diagnosis of BrM compared with non-TNBC subtypes. 4 Given the unique location and biologic properties of BrM, treatment options have historically been limited. Challenges to the treatment of TNBC BrM include a lack of targeted therapies and difficulties in delivery of drug to the brain past the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, we will review the advances in local and systemic therapies to most effectively treat patients with TNBC BrM, including therapies on the horizon currently in clinical trials.

Keywords: Clinical trials; Local therapy; Systemic therapy.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms* / secondary
  • Brain Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Breast Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms* / pathology