Polymorphic 2D materials allow structural and electronic phase engineering, which can be used to realize energy-efficient, cost-effective, and scalable device applications. The phase engineering covers not only conventional structural and metal-insulator transitions but also magnetic states, strongly correlated band structures, and topological phases in rich 2D materials. The methods used for the local phase engineering of 2D materials include various optical, geometrical, and chemical processes as well as traditional thermodynamic approaches. In this Review, we survey the precise manipulation of local phases and phase patterning of 2D materials, particularly with ideal and versatile phase interfaces for electronic and energy device applications. Polymorphic 2D materials and diverse quantum materials with their layered, vertical, and lateral geometries are discussed with an emphasis on the role and use of their phase interfaces. Various phase interfaces have demonstrated superior and unique performance in electronic and energy devices. The phase patterning leads to novel homo- and heterojunction structures of 2D materials with low-dimensional phase boundaries, which highlights their potential for technological breakthroughs in future electronic, quantum, and energy devices. Accordingly, we encourage researchers to investigate and exploit phase patterning in emerging 2D materials.