Safety of romiplostim administered immediately after cord-blood transplantation: a phase 1 trial

Ann Hematol. 2023 Oct;102(10):2895-2902. doi: 10.1007/s00277-023-05410-3. Epub 2023 Aug 17.

Abstract

Graft failure and delayed hematopoietic recovery are the major limitations of cord-blood transplantation (CBT). Romiplostim, a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, promotes megakaryopoiesis and multilineage hematopoiesis in aplastic anemia. The decreased number of hematopoietic stem cells in the early phase after CBT and aplastic anemia share certain characteristics. Therefore, we hypothesized that romiplostim administration immediately after CBT may promote multilineage hematopoietic recovery. We investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of administering romiplostim a day after CBT. This phase 1 dose-escalation study included six adults with hematologic malignancies in remission. Romiplostim was administered subcutaneously within 7 days after single-unit CBT, initially at doses of 5 µg/kg or 10 µg/kg in three patients, then once a week for 14 weeks or until platelet recovery. The maximum dose was 20 µg/kg. The median number of romiplostim administrations was 6 (range, 3-15). Romiplostim-related adverse events included bone pain (3/6) and injection site reaction (1/6). Non-hematological grade ≥ 3 toxicities were observed in four patients; febrile neutropenia was the most common (4/6). All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment and the median time was 14 days (range, 12-32). Platelet counts ≥ 50 × 109 /L were recorded in all patients except for one who died on day 48; the median time was 34 days (range, 29-98). No relapse, thrombosis, or bone marrow fibrosis was observed during a median follow-up of 34 months. Romiplostim may be safely administered in the early phase of CBT. Further phase 2 trial is warranted for its efficacy evaluation. Trial registration number: UMIN000033799, August 18, 2018.

Keywords: Cord-blood transplantation; Hematopoietic recovery; Romiplostim; Thrombopoietin-receptor agonist.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anemia, Aplastic*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Thrombopoietin / adverse effects

Substances

  • romiplostim
  • Thrombopoietin