Frontiers in Endoscopic Treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Digestion. 2024;105(1):5-10. doi: 10.1159/000533200. Epub 2023 Aug 17.


Background: The 3rd edition of the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 2021 from the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology states that the treatment strategy for potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB)-refractory GERD remains unclear. Furthermore, even if GERD improves with the administration of an acid secretion inhibitor, it is feared that GERD may flare up after discontinuation of the drug, resulting in some cases in which patients are forced to take vonoprazan semipermanently (the so-called PCAB-dependent cases). From a global perspective, PCAB is not yet used in all countries and regions, and measures that can be taken now for cases in which a conventional proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is inadequately effective need to be devised.

Summary: Endoscopic treatment for GERD may be effective in cases where conventional proton pump inhibitors are ineffective; however, there are insufficient long-term studies to corroborate this, and its cost effectiveness is unknown. Other treatment options for PCAB or PPI-refractory GERD include surgical procedures (Nissen and Toupet operations), which have a longer history than endoscopic treatment for GERD. However, their long-term results are not as good as those of acid secretion inhibitors, and they are not cost effective. Endoscopic treatment for GERD may fill gaps in inadequate surgical treatment. In April 2022, endoscopic anti-reflux mucosal resections (ARMS [anti-reflux mucosectomy] and ESD-G [endoscopic submucosal dissection for GERD]) were approved for reimbursement, making endoscopic treatment of GERD possible throughout Japan.

Key messages: It is important to identify the background factors in cases in which endoscopic treatments are effective.

Keywords: Endoscopic mucosal resection; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Reflux esophagitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopic Mucosal Resection*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux* / drug therapy
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux* / etiology
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Proton Pump Inhibitors