The indicated clinical evaluation of atypical squamous cells demonstrated on Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has not been determined. Although several reports and opinions suggest that these cells are of no particular significance other studies have noted these cells in instances of advanced cervical dysplasia. A study of 429 patients with a recent Pap smear demonstrating atypical squamous cells was conducted. Abnormal colposcopy was present in 237 (55%). In 86 (36%) of the 237 patients, dysplasia was confirmed histologically. The authors would, therefore, recommend colposcopy and biopsy of abnormal areas in these patients. A summation of the repeat Pap smear findings of these dysplasia-proven patients is presented.