Macroautophagy/autophagy, is widely recognized for its crucial role in enabling cell survival and maintaining cellular energy homeostasis during starvation or energy stress. Its regulation is intricately linked to cellular energy status. In this review, covering yeast, mammals, and plants, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the understanding of the roles and mechanisms of carbon- or glucose-deprivation related autophagy, showing how cells effectively respond to such challenges for survival. Further investigation is needed to determine the specific degraded substrates by autophagy during glucose or energy deprivation and the diverse roles and mechanisms during varying durations of energy starvation.Abbreviations: ADP: adenosine diphosphate; AMP: adenosine monophosphate; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex required for transport; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GD: glucose deprivation; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GTPases: guanosine triphosphatases; HK2: hexokinase 2; K phaffii: Komagataella phaffii; LD: lipid droplet; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; Mec1: mitosis entry checkpoint 1; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NAD (+): nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; PAS: phagophore assembly site; PCD: programmed cell death; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; ROS: reactive oxygen species; S. cerevisiae: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; Snf1: sucrose non-fermenting 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TORC1: target of rapamycin complex 1; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; Vps27: vacuolar protein sorting 27; Vps4: vacuolar protein sorting 4.
Keywords: AMPK; Snf1; autophagy; carbon starvation; energy metabolism; glucose starvation.