The impact of social media on guideline-concordant cervical cancer-screening: insights from a national survey

Public Health. 2023 Oct:223:50-56. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2023.07.025. Epub 2023 Aug 18.

Abstract

Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women, yet routine screenings lead to early detection and sometimes even prevention. Screening is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, and it has been implemented in many countries and regions worldwide, especially in developed countries. However, the incidence of cervical cancer remains a public health problem due to screening disparities in the population. Social media engagement and overloading of online health information may be the cause of this disparity.

Study design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (a national survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute) was used to characterise cervical cancer screening into two dimensions; namely, high-frequency screening and guideline-concordant screening. The differences between these two screening frequency behaviours were compared by applying ordered logistic regression and binary logistic regression, and the mechanisms of guideline-concordant screening were explored.

Results: The factors influencing high-frequency screening and guideline-concordant screening were different. Only self-efficacy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98, 1.37) had a significant positive association with the high-frequency screening behaviour. Social media engagement (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.33, 0.96) was shown to have a significant negative impact on guideline-concordant screening. A theory-based mechanism of screening behaviour found that traditional health perception factors no longer influence guideline-concordant screening behaviour, whereas environmental factors (e.g., social media) significantly reduce guideline-concordant screening behaviour.

Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that while the internet has become the main channel through which women acquire health resources, and social media has become a main platform for people to obtain health information, online information cannot guide people to engage in appropriate healthy behaviours. Overloading of online health information and the digital divide may lead to excessive screening. Consequently, it is important to address the screening disparity caused by health behaviours as a result of environmental factors and the digital divide.

Keywords: Cervical cancer screening; Health disparity; Health promotion;; Screening frequency; Social media engagement.

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Social Media*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / prevention & control