Phospholamban is a regulatory protein in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum that is phosphorylated by cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activities. In this report, we present the partial amino acid sequence of canine cardiac phospholamban and the identification of the sites phosphorylated by these two protein kinases. Gas-phase protein sequencing was used to identify 20 NH2-terminal residues. Overlap peptides produced by trypsin or papain digestion extended the sequence 16 residues to give the following primary structure: Ser-Ala-Ile-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Thr-Ile-Glu-Met-Pro-Gln-Gln-Ala- Arg-Gln-Asn-Leu-Gln-Asn-Leu-Phe-Ile-Asn-Phe-(Cys)-Leu-Ile-Leu-Ile-(Cys)- Leu-Leu-Leu-Ile-. Phospholamban phosphorylated by either cAMP-dependent or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase was cleaved with trypsin, and the major phosphorylated peptide (comprising greater than 70% of the incorporated 32P label) was purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The identical sequence was revealed for the radioactive peptide obtained from phospholamban phosphorylated by either kinase: Arg-Ala-Ser-Thr-Ile-Glu-Met-Pro-Gln-Gln-. The adjacent residues Ser7 and Thr8 of phospholamban were identified as the unique sites phosphorylated by cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, respectively. These results establish that phospholamban is an oligomer of small, identical polypeptide chains. A hydrophilic, cytoplasmically oriented NH2-terminal domain on each monomer contains the unique, adjacent residues phosphorylated by cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activities. Analysis by hydropathic profiling and secondary structure prediction suggests that phospholamban monomers also contain a hydrophobic domain, which could form amphipathic helices sufficiently long to traverse the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. A model of phospholamban as a pentamer is presented in which the amphipathic alpha-helix of each monomer is a subunit of the pentameric membrane-anchored domain, which is comprised of an exterior hydrophobic surface and an interior hydrophilic region containing polar side chains.