Wolfram Syndrome-2, a Cause of Severe Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case Series and a Literature Review

JPGN Rep. 2023 Jul 17;4(3):e339. doi: 10.1097/PG9.0000000000000339. eCollection 2023 Aug.


Background: There are very few reports of Wolfram syndrome-2 (WFS2) in the literature, and understanding of involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in the syndrome is limited. Objectives: This study aims to describe the clinical presentations of a large number of WFS2 patients with specific focus on their GI manifestations.

Methods: This is a retrospective case series study. Patients who were homozygous for the CISD2 gene mutation were identified through the genetic department of Al-Makassed hospital. Their medical records were reviewed, and biometric data have been obtained. The data were collected and arranged on a data sheet, and descriptive analysis was done using SPSS.

Results: Thirteen patients from 9 families were identified; diabetes mellitus was present in 6 of them, optic atrophy in 5, diabetes insipidus (DI) in 5, and deafness in 2. All of the patients had GI manifestations with abnormal findings on upper endoscopy. Dysmorphic facial features and abnormal findings on brain MRI were present in 3 of our patients. The GI manifestations including GI bleeding and severe ulcerations were the first to appear in 9 of them, while anemia in the remaining 4.

Conclusion: This is the largest study to date describing patients with WFS2. This study's evidence shows the prominent presence of GI involvement, and the severe findings on endoscopy, including duodenal, gastric, and esophageal ulcerations and strictures. Unlike in the Jordanian report, some of the patients in our report also have DI.

Keywords: CISD2 gene; DIDMOAD; diabetes insipidus; gastrointestinal ulcers; optic atrophy.