An extensive β1-adrenergic receptor gene signaling network regulates molecular remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathies

JCI Insight. 2023 Aug 22;8(16):e169720. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.169720.


We investigated the extent, biologic characterization, phenotypic specificity, and possible regulation of a β1-adrenergic receptor-linked (β1-AR-linked) gene signaling network (β1-GSN) involved in left ventricular (LV) eccentric pathologic remodeling. A 430-member β1-GSN was identified by mRNA expression in transgenic mice overexpressing human β1-ARs or from literature curation, which exhibited opposite directional behavior in interventricular septum endomyocardial biopsies taken from patients with beta-blocker-treated, reverse remodeled dilated cardiomyopathies. With reverse remodeling, the major biologic categories and percentage of the dominant directional change were as follows: metabolic (19.3%, 81% upregulated); gene regulation (14.9%, 78% upregulated); extracellular matrix/fibrosis (9.1%, 92% downregulated); and cell homeostasis (13.3%, 60% upregulated). Regarding the comparison of β1-GSN categories with expression from 19,243 nonnetwork genes, phenotypic selection for major β1-GSN categories was exhibited for LV end systolic volume (contractility measure), ejection fraction (remodeling index), and pulmonary wedge pressure (wall tension surrogate), beginning at 3 months and persisting to study completion at 12 months. In addition, 121 lncRNAs were identified as possibly involved in cis-acting regulation of β1-GSN members. We conclude that an extensive 430-member gene network downstream from the β1-AR is involved in pathologic ventricular remodeling, with metabolic genes as the most prevalent category.

Keywords: Bioinformatics; Cardiology; Genetics; Heart failure; Molecular genetics.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Products*
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated* / genetics
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Receptors, Adrenergic
  • Signal Transduction


  • Receptors, Adrenergic
  • Biological Products