The effects of apple cider vinegar on cardiometabolic risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials

Curr Med Chem. 2023 Aug 22. doi: 10.2174/0929867331666230822102021. Online ahead of print.


Background: Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is a set of metabolic abnormalities that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apple cider vinegar (ACV) has been used in several studies as a natural agent to improve CMS risk factors. The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of ACV consumption on lipid and glycemic parameters.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases were systematically searched to find clinical trials evaluating the effects of ACV consumption on CMS risk factors.

Results: Overall, 25 clinical trials (33 arms) comprising 1320 adults were entered in this study. ACV consumption could significantly improve the levels of FBG (-21.20 mg/dl; 95% CI: -32.31 to -2.21; I2: 95.8%), HbA1c (-0.91mg/dl; 95% CI: -1.62 to -0.21; I2: 98.9%), and TC (-6.72 mg/dl; 95% CI: -12.91 to -0.53; I2:50.8%). No significant results were observed for BMI, HOMA-IR, serum insulin, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Subgroup analysis showed a significant decrease in FBG, HbA1c, TC, and TG in diabetic patients. In this type of analysis, ACV consumption significantly reduced FBG levels when administered for both duration subgroups (≥12 and <12 weeks). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis based on duration, TG concentration was significantly decreased following ACV consumption for ≥ 12 weeks.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that consumption of ACV has a favorable effect in decreasing some CMS risk factors including FBG, HbA1c, and TC.

Keywords: Apple cider vinegar; Cardiometabolic risk factors; Cholesterol; Fasting blood glucose; HbA1C; Meta-analysis.