Nanomembranes-Affiliated Water Remediation: Chronology, Properties, Classification, Challenges and Future Prospects

Membranes (Basel). 2023 Aug 1;13(8):713. doi: 10.3390/membranes13080713.

Abstract

Water contamination has become a global crisis, affecting millions of people worldwide and causing diseases and illnesses, including cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis A. Conventional water remediation methods have several challenges, including their inability to remove emerging contaminants and their high cost and environmental impact. Nanomembranes offer a promising solution to these challenges. Nanomembranes are thin, selectively permeable membranes that can remove contaminants from water based on size, charge, and other properties. They offer several advantages over conventional methods, including their ability to remove evolving pollutants, low functioning price, and reduced ecological influence. However, there are numerous limitations linked with the applications of nanomembranes in water remediation, including fouling and scaling, cost-effectiveness, and potential environmental impact. Researchers are working to reduce the cost of nanomembranes through the development of more cost-effective manufacturing methods and the use of alternative materials such as graphene. Additionally, there are concerns about the release of nanomaterials into the environment during the manufacturing and disposal of the membranes, and further research is needed to understand their potential impact. Despite these challenges, nanomembranes offer a promising solution for the global water crisis and could have a significant impact on public health and the environment. The current article delivers an overview on the exploitation of various engineered nanoscale substances, encompassing the carbonaceous nanomaterials, metallic, metal oxide and metal-organic frameworks, polymeric nano-adsorbents and nanomembranes, for water remediation. The article emphasizes the mechanisms involved in adsorption and nanomembrane filtration. Additionally, the authors aim to deliver an all-inclusive review on the chronology, technical execution, challenges, restrictions, reusability, and future prospects of these nanomaterials.

Keywords: nano-processing; nanofiltration; nanomembranes; ultrafiltration; water remediation.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.