Effect of polishing and denture cleansers on the surface roughness of new-generation denture base materials and their color change after cleansing

J Prosthodont. 2023 Aug 25. doi: 10.1111/jopr.13755. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of polishing and denture cleansers on the surface roughness (Ra ) of new-generation denture base materials that are additively, subtractively, and conventionally fabricated, while also assessing their color change after cleansing.

Material and methods: One hundred and fifty disk-shaped specimens (Ø10 × 2 mm) were prepared from five denture base materials (one subtractively manufactured nanographene-reinforced prepolymerized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) (SM-GC), one subtractively manufactured prepolymerized PMMA (SM-PM), two additively manufactured denture base resins (AM-DT and AM-ND), and one heat-polymerized PMMA (CV) (n = 30). The Ra of the specimens was measured before and after conventional laboratory polishing, while color coordinates were measured after polishing. Specimens were then divided into three subgroups based on the denture cleanser: distilled water, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and effervescent tablet (n = 10). The Ra and color coordinates were remeasured after nine cleansing cycles over a period of 20 days. The CIEDE2000 formula was used to calculate the color differences (ΔE00 ). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the Ra values before (n = 30) and after (n = 10) cleansing, while repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the Ra of material-time point pairs within each denture cleanser (n = 10). ΔE00 data after denture cleansing was also analyzed by using two-way ANOVA (n = 10) (α = 0.05).

Results: Before polishing, Ra varied significantly among the materials. SM-GC and SM-PM had the lowest and AM-ND the highest Ra values (P < 0.001). Polishing significantly reduced Ra of all materials (P < 0.001), and after polishing, Ra differences among materials were nonsignificant (P ≥ 0.072). Regardless of the denture cleanser, the Ra of AM-DT, AM-ND, and CV was the highest before polishing when different time points were considered (P < 0.001). After cleansing, AM-ND had the highest Ra of all the materials, regardless of the cleanser (P ≤ 0.017). AM-DT had higher Ra than SM-PM when distilled water (P = 0.040) and higher Ra than SM-GC, SM-PM, and CV when NaOCl was used (P < 0.001). The type of cleanser significantly influenced the Ra of AM-DT, AM-ND, and CV. For AM-DT, NaOCl led to the highest Ra and the tablet led to the lowest Ra (P ≤ 0.042), while for AM-ND, distilled water led to the lowest Ra (P ≤ 0.024). For CV, the tablet led to lower Ra than distilled water (P = 0.009). Color change varied among the materials. When distilled water was used, SM-GC had higher ΔE00 than SM-PM and AM-DT (P ≤ 0.034). When NaOCl was used, AM-ND had higher ΔE00 than SM-GC, SM-PM, and AM-DT, while CV and SM-GC had higher ΔE00 than SM-PM and AM-DT (P ≤ 0.039). Finally, when the tablet was used, AM-ND and CV had the highest ΔE00 , while AM-DT had lower ΔE00 than SM-GC (P ≤ 0.015).

Conclusions: The tested materials had unacceptable surface roughness (>0.2 μm) before polishing. Roughness decreased significantly after polishing (<0.2 μm). Denture cleansers did not significantly affect the surface roughness of the materials, and roughness remained clinically acceptable after cleansing (<0.2 μm). Considering previously reported color thresholds, AM-ND and CV had unacceptable color change regardless of the denture cleanser, and the effervescent tablet led to perceptible, but acceptable color change for SM-GC, SM-PM, and AM-DT.

Keywords: additive manufacturing; chemical disinfection; color change; denture base; surface roughness.