The objective of the present review was to systematically examine associations between perturbations of the homeostatic or circadian sleep processes and the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of individuals with ADHD. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between December 2013 and March 2023. Studies were included if they used objective measures of NBF, used objective or subjective measures of sleep, and focused on individuals with ADHD. Ten studies met these inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies found perturbations in the interplay between NBF and Process S or Process C, and three studies did not. The quality of the studies was degraded because they failed to address key factors that affect the sleep processes and by the presence of methodological weaknesses. Our review suggests that homeostatic and circadian sleep processes are associated with NBF in individuals with ADHD. However, to confirm the validity of this conclusion, future studies should examine or control for confounders and utilize experimental designs that allow causality to be inferred.
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); circadian; homeostatic; inhibitory control; neurobehavioral functioning; sleep; sustained attention; working memory.