Analysis of Bilaterality and Symmetry of Posterior Staphyloma in High Myopia

Diagnostics (Basel). 2023 Aug 15;13(16):2680. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics13162680.


The purpose of this study was to examine bilaterality and symmetry of posterior staphyloma (PS) in high myopic eyes. Methods: This cross-sectional and non-interventional study assessed 473 high myopic eyes [axial length (AL) ≥ 26 mm] of 259 patients. Patients underwent an ophthalmological examination including multimodal-imaging and myopic maculopathy grading according to Atrophic/Tractional/Neovascular (ATN) system, presence and subtype of PS, and severe pathologic myopia (PM). Bilaterality of PS and subtype's symmetry between eyes of the same patient was assessed. Four groups were analyzed: (1) bilateral vs. unilateral PS's eyes. Within bilateral group, symmetric vs. asymmetric subtypes according to (2) Curtin's classification, (3) Ohno-Matsui's classification, and (4) primary/compound subtypes. Results: Out of the total, 334 myopic eyes of 167 patients were included. The 92.8% (n = 310/334) of the eyes presented PS and was bilateral in 85.6% (n = 143/167) of the patients. Bilateral eyes showed significantly (p < 0.01) greater AL, severe PM, A and N components vs. unilateral PS. AL-difference between both eyes was greater in unilateral PS (p < 0.01). Among bilateral PS, the subtype was symmetric in 79 (55.2%), 84 (58.7%), and 115 (80.4%) patients according to Curtin's classification, Ohno-Matsui's classification, and primary/compound; respectively. The asymmetric group presented worse best-corrected visual acuity (p < 0.01), higher AL (p < 0.01), incidence of PM, and severe PM (p < 0.05). Conclusions: PS was bilateral in most of the patients without clinical differences between both eyes, being symmetrical in more than half of bilateral cases. Patients with bilateral PS showed higher myopic maculopathy, AL, and incidence of severe PM than unilateral PS.

Keywords: bilaterality; high myopia; pathologic myopia; posterior staphyloma; symmetry.

Grants and funding

Prof. José M. Ruiz-Moreno disclosed receipt of the following financial support from: Topcon, Co. The sponsor had no role in the design, conduct, authorship, and publication of this research.