Diabetes Mellitus Secondary to Endocrine Diseases: An Update of Diagnostic and Treatment Particularities

Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Aug 11;24(16):12676. doi: 10.3390/ijms241612676.


Secondary diabetes mellitus is frequently ignored in specialized literature. In this narrative review, the main endocrinopathies accompanied by increased glycemic values are identified, as well as the mechanisms by which the excess or deficiency of certain hormones impact beta cell function or insulin resistance. The main endocrinopathies (acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, Basedow-Graves' disease, pheochromocytoma, somatostatinoma and glucagonoma) and their characteristics are described along with the impact of hormone changes on blood sugar, body mass index and other parameters associated with diabetes. The overall information regarding the complex molecular mechanisms that cause the risk of secondary diabetes and metabolic syndrome is of crucial importance in order to prevent the development of the disease and its complications and particularly to reduce the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The purpose of this study is to highlight the particular features of endocrine pathologies accompanied by an increased risk of developing diabetes, in the context of personalized therapeutic decision making. The epidemiological, physiopathological, clinical and therapeutic approaches are presented along with the importance of screening for diabetes in endocrine diseases.

Keywords: Cushing’s syndrome; Graves’ disease; acromegaly; aldosteronism; diabetes; endocrine diseases; glucagonoma; pheochromocytoma; somatostatinoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acromegaly*
  • Adrenal Gland Neoplasms*
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / therapy
  • Graves Disease*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Metabolic Syndrome*

Grants and funding

This research was funded by the University of Oradea.