The CRISPR-based genome editing technology, known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), has sparked renewed interest in gene therapy. This interest is accompanied by the development of single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), which enable the introduction of desired genetic modifications at the targeted site when used alongside the CRISPR components. However, the efficient delivery of CRISPR/Cas remains a challenge. Successful gene editing relies on the development of a delivery strategy that can effectively deliver the CRISPR cargo to the target site. To overcome this obstacle, researchers have extensively explored non-viral, viral, and physical methods for targeted delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 and a guide RNA (gRNA) into cells and tissues. Among those methods, liposomes offer a promising approach to enhance the delivery of CRISPR/Cas and gRNA. Liposomes facilitate endosomal escape and leverage various stimuli such as light, pH, ultrasound, and environmental cues to provide both spatial and temporal control of cargo release. Thus, the combination of the CRISPR-based system with liposome delivery technology enables precise and efficient genetic modifications in cells and tissues. This approach has numerous applications in basic research, biotechnology, and therapeutic interventions. For instance, it can be employed to correct genetic mutations associated with inherited diseases and other disorders or to modify immune cells to enhance their disease-fighting capabilities. In summary, liposome-based CRISPR genome editing provides a valuable tool for achieving precise and efficient genetic modifications. This review discusses future directions and opportunities to further advance this rapidly evolving field.
Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; gRNA; gene delivery; gene editing; liposome; single-guide RNA.