Background and aims: The aims of this study were to investigate lipid parameters during the first 14-16 months of life, to identify influential factors, and to test whether high concentrations at birth predict high concentrations at 2- and 14-16 months.
Methods: The Copenhagen Baby Heart Study, including 13,354 umbilical cord blood samples and parallel venous blood samples from children and parents at birth (n = 444), 2 months (n = 364), and 14-16 months (n = 168), was used.
Results: Concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in umbilical cord blood samples correlated highly with venous blood samples from newborns. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) increased stepwise from birth to 2 months to 14-16 months. Linear mixed models showed that concentrations of LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) above the 80th percentile at birth were associated with significantly higher concentrations at 2 and 14-16 months. Finally, lipid concentrations differed according to sex, gestational age, birth weight, breastfeeding, and parental lipid concentrations.
Conclusions: Lipid parameters changed during the first 14-16 months of life, and sex, gestational age, birth weight, breastfeeding, and high parental concentrations influenced concentrations. Children with high concentrations of atherogenic lipid traits at birth had higher concentrations at 2 and 14-16 months. These findings increase our knowledge of how lipid traits develop over the first 14-16 months of life and may help in deciding the optimal child age for universal familial hypercholesterolaemia screening.
Keywords: Apolipoproteins; Lipids; Lipoproteins; Prevention; Umbilical cord blood.
© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.