Continuous Subcutaneous Foslevodopa/Foscarbidopa in Parkinson's Disease: Safety and Efficacy Results From a 12-Month, Single-Arm, Open-Label, Phase 3 Study

Neurol Ther. 2023 Dec;12(6):1937-1958. doi: 10.1007/s40120-023-00533-1. Epub 2023 Aug 26.


Introduction: Foslevodopa/foscarbidopa, a soluble formulation of levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) prodrugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered as a 24-hour/day continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) with a single infusion site. The efficacy and safety of foslevodopa/foscarbidopa versus oral immediate-release LD/CD was previously demonstrated in patients with PD in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial (NCT04380142). We report the results of a separate 52-week, open-label, phase 3 registrational trial (NCT03781167) that evaluated the safety/tolerability and efficacy of 24-hour/day foslevodopa/foscarbidopa CSCI in patients with advanced PD.

Methods: Male and female patients with levodopa-responsive PD and ≥ 2.5 hours of "Off" time/day received 24-hour/day foslevodopa/foscarbidopa CSCI at individually optimized therapeutic doses (approximately 700-4250 mg of LD per 24 hours) for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was safety/tolerability. Secondary endpoints included changes from baseline in normalized "Off" and "On" time, percentage of patients reporting morning akinesia, Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale-2 (PDSS-2), 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), and EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L).

Results: Of 244 enrolled patients, 107 discontinued, and 137 completed treatment. Infusion site events were the most common adverse events (AEs). AEs were mostly nonserious (25.8% of patients reported serious AEs) and mild/moderate in severity. At week 52, "On" time without troublesome dyskinesia and "Off" time were improved from baseline (mean [standard deviation (SD)] change in normalized "On" time without troublesome dyskinesia, 3.8 [3.3] hours; normalized "Off" time, -3.5 [3.1] hours). The percentage of patients experiencing morning akinesia dropped from 77.7% at baseline to 27.8% at week 52. Sleep quality (PDSS-2) and quality of life (PDQ-39 and EQ-5D-5L) also improved.

Conclusion: Foslevodopa/foscarbidopa has the potential to provide a safe and efficacious, individualized, 24-hour/day, nonsurgical alternative for patients with PD.

Trial registration number: identifier NCT03781167.

Keywords: Advanced Parkinson’s disease; Foslevodopa/foscarbidopa; Levodopa/carbidopa prodrugs; Motor fluctuations; Subcutaneous infusion.

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