Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 plasma levels predict cardiogenic shock and mortality in acute coronary syndromes

Eur Heart J. 2023 Oct 12;44(38):3859-3871. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehad545.


Background and aims: Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is a protease involved in the degradation of angiotensin II which disturbs peripheral blood pressure regulation and compromises left ventricular function. This study examined the relationship of circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) with cardiogenic shock (CS) and mortality in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Methods: Plasma cDPP3 levels were assessed at baseline and 12-24 h after presentation in patients with ACS prospectively enrolled into the multi-centre SPUM-ACS study (n = 4787).

Results: Circulating DPP3 levels were associated with in-hospital CS when accounting for established risk factors including the ORBI risk score [per log-2 increase, hazard ratio (HR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.82, P = .021]. High cDPP3 was an independent predictor of mortality at 30 days (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.36-2.58, P < .001) and at one year (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.28-2.02, P < .001) after adjustment for established risk factors and the GRACE 2.0 score. Compared to values within the normal range, persistently elevated cDPP3 levels at 12-24 h were associated with 13.4-fold increased 30-day mortality risk (HR 13.42, 95% CI 4.86-37.09, P < .001) and 5.8-fold increased 1-year mortality risk (HR 5.79, 95% CI 2.70-12.42, P < .001). Results were consistent across various patient subgroups.

Conclusions: This study identifies cDPP3 as a novel marker of CS and increased mortality in patients with ACS. Circulating DPP3 offers prognostic information beyond established risk factors and improves early risk assessment.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndromes; Cardiogenic shock; DPP3; Risk prediction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome* / complications
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / etiology


  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases