Secondary Vasculitis Attributable to Post-COVID Syndrome

Cureus. 2023 Aug 25;15(8):e44119. doi: 10.7759/cureus.44119. eCollection 2023 Aug.

Abstract

While the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic has largely come to pass, the chronic physiologic effects of the coronavirus continue to unfold. Specifically, the number of COVID-19-associated vasculitis cases has steadily increased since the onset of the pandemic. Data have shown that vasculitis may develop less than two weeks after COVID-19 or during a later onset of the disease. At this time, research has demonstrated that the novel coronavirus invades more than just the lungs; it can also attack the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and kidneys. In addition, there is a greater understanding of the pathogenesis regarding COVID-19-induced vasculitis via humoral immunity and immune complex disease. Recent case reports have shown an association between COVID-19 and secondary vasculitis. This review paper discusses case reports and data that suggest that COVID-19 may lead to specific vasculitis diseases such as giant cell arteritis, ophthalmic arteritis, aortitis, and Kawasaki-like disease. More research needs to be performed on this association to aid in diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: coronavirus; covid-19; endothelium; hemodynamics; sars-cov-2; temporal arteritis; thrombosis; type iii hypersensitivity; vasculitis; vasculopathy.

Publication types

  • Review