The rise of flexible and stretchable electronics has revolutionized biosensor techniques for probing biological systems. Particularly, flexible and stretchable electrochemical sensors (FSECSs) enable the in situ quantification of numerous biochemical molecules in different biological entities owing to their exceptional sensitivity, fast response, and easy miniaturization. Over the past decade, the fabrication and application of FSECSs have significantly progressed. This review highlights key developments in electrode fabrication and FSECSs functionalization. It delves into the electrochemical sensing of various biomarkers, including metabolites, electrolytes, signaling molecules, and neurotransmitters from biological systems, encompassing the outer epidermis, tissues/organs in vitro and in vivo, and living cells. Finally, considering electrode preparation and biological applications, current challenges and future opportunities for FSECSs are discussed.
Keywords: biochemical molecules; cell monitoring; electrochemical sensors; epidermal analysis; flexible electronics; tissue detection.
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