Synthesis, characterization, and reusability of novel nanobiocomposite of endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus and magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with dye bioremediation potential

Chemosphere. 2023 Nov:340:139956. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.139956. Epub 2023 Aug 26.


The incorrect disposal of textile dyes, such as Reactive Black 5 (RB5), causes several problems for living beings and the quality of the environment. Nanobiocomposites (NBC) produced from endophytic fungi (potentially remediation dyes-agents) and magnetic nanoparticles have high biotechnological potential due to their superparamagnetic behavior, which would allow their recovery through the magnetic field after the bioremediation process. This work aimed to obtain a new nanobiocomposite from the interaction of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) with the endophyte Aspergillus flavus (Af-CL-7) to evaluate its bioremediation capacity and to reduce the toxicity of RB5 and its reuse. Before obtaining the NBC, Af-CL-7 showed discoloration of RB5 and it was tolerant to all tested concentrations of this dye. The discovery of the nanobiocomposite textile dye bioremediator product presents a significant environmental advantage by addressing the issue of water pollution caused by textile dyes. The NBC called Af-Fe3O4 was successfully obtained with the magnetized endophyte, and their magnetic properties were verified by VSM analysis and by action of magnetic fields generated by Nd-Fe-B magnets SEM analyzes showed that the nanoparticles did not cause any damage to the hypha morphology, and TEM analyzes confirmed the presence of nanoparticles in the fungus wall and also inside the cell. The NBC Af-Fe3O4 and Af-CL-7 showed, respectively, 96.1% and 92.2% of RB5 discoloration in the first use, 91.1% e 86.2% of discoloration in the validation test, and 89.0% in NBC reuse. In the toxicological bioassay with Lactuca sativa seeds, NBC showed a positive reduction in the toxicity of RB5 after treatment, allowing the hypocotyl growth to be statistically similar to the control with water. Thus, we highlight the promising obtaining process of NBC that could be applied in bioremediation of contaminated waters, wherein the industrial economic cost will depend on the fermentation efficiency, biomass production and nanoparticle synthesis.

Keywords: Endophytic microorganisms; Magnetite nanoparticles; Reduction of toxicity; Remediation; Wastewater treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Aspergillus flavus*
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Coloring Agents
  • Endophytes
  • Fungi
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles*


  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Coloring Agents