Outer Membrane Vesicle-Based Nanohybrids Target Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Enhance Trained Immunity-Related Vaccine-Generated Antitumor Activity

Adv Mater. 2023 Nov;35(46):e2306158. doi: 10.1002/adma.202306158. Epub 2023 Oct 15.


Trained immunity refers to the innate immune system building memory-like features in response to subsequent infections and vaccinations. Compared with classical tumor vaccines, trained immunity-related vaccines (TIrV) are independent of tumor-specific antigens. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) contain an abundance of PAMPs and have the potential to act as TIrV-inducer, but face challenges in endotoxin tolerance, systemic delivery, long-term training, and trained tumor-associated macrophage (TAM)-mediated antitumor phagocytosis. Here, an OMV-based TIrV is developed, OMV nanohybrids (OMV-SIRPα@CaP/GM-CSF) for exerting vaccine-enhanced antitumor activity. In the bone marrow, GM-CSF-assisted OMVs train bone marrow progenitor cells and monocytes, which are inherited by TAMs. In tumor tissues, SIRPα-Fc-assisted OMVs trigger TAM-mediated phagocytosis. This TIrV can be identified by metabolic and epigenetic rewiring using transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC) and transcriptome sequencing. Furthermore, it is found that the TIrV-mediated antitumor mechanism in the MC38 tumor model (TAM-hot and T cell-cold) is trained immunity and activated T cell response, whereas in the B16-F10 tumor model (T cell-hot and TAM-cold) is primarily mediated by trained immunity. This study not only develops and identifies OMV-based TIrV, but also investigates the trained immunity signatures and therapeutic mechanisms, providing a basis for further vaccination strategies.

Keywords: antitumor mechanisms; outer membrane vesicle-based nanohybrids; trained immunity signatures; trained immunity-related vaccines (TIrV); tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs).

MeSH terms

  • Cancer Vaccines*
  • Extracellular Vesicles*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Trained Immunity
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophages


  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Cancer Vaccines