[Premedication in fiber optic bronchoscopy from the patient's and the physician's viewpoint--a randomized study for the comparison of midazolam and hydrocodone]

Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1986 Sep 13;116(37):1267-72.
[Article in German]


To evaluate side effects and patients' assessment of fiberoptic bronchoscopy under local anesthesia, 122 consecutive patients answered questions from an outside interviewer (an experienced psychiatrist) and not from the endoscopists themselves. The effect of premedication with midazolam (5 mg i.m.) and hydrocodonum (15 mg i.m.) was compared in a randomized study. In a multiple choice questionnaire 68% of all patients indicated considerable fear in the days before bronchoscopy. They were more afraid of the possible diagnosis of cancer (23%) than of dyspnea or asphyxiation (14%). Coughing is considered the worst side effect of bronchoscopy by 25% of patients (36% of the endoscopists) followed by dyspnea during insertion of the scope (21%) and discomfort during local anesthesia. Although the patients premedicated with midazolam are more sedated (p = 0.025 by physicians' assessment vs. p = 0.11 in patients' view), they cough more (p = 0.001 vs. p = 0.22) and usually tolerate the examination less well (p = 0.009 vs. p = 0.08) than patients premedicated with hydrocodonum. 42% of patients premedicated with midazolam had anterograde amnesia. Although they did not remember all the unpleasant side effects, only 77% said they would repeat the procedure with the same premedication, compared with 90% of patients premedicated with hydrocodonum (p = 0.08). Before and two hours after premedication the reaction times had not changed (optical sign, Wiener reaction device) and were identical in the two patient groups. At that time 37% of the patients premedicated with midazolam and 27% of those premedicated with hydrocodonum were still sleepy and could not be regarded as fit for any form of travel.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bronchoscopy* / adverse effects
  • Bronchoscopy* / psychology
  • Codeine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Cough / etiology
  • Cough / prevention & control
  • Dyspnea / etiology
  • Dyspnea / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Fiber Optic Technology
  • Humans
  • Hydrocodone / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Midazolam / therapeutic use*
  • Middle Aged
  • Optical Fibers
  • Premedication*
  • Random Allocation


  • Hydrocodone
  • Midazolam
  • Codeine