Development of the Canadian Eating Practices Screener to assess eating practices based on 2019 Canada's Food Guide recommendations

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2023 Dec 1;48(12):907-918. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2023-0081. Epub 2023 Aug 30.


In 2019, Health Canada released a new iteration of Canada's Food Guide (2019-CFG), which, for the first time, highlighted recommendations regarding eating practices, i.e., guidance on where, when, why, and how to eat. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-administered screener to assess eating practices recommended in the 2019-CFG among adults aged 18-65 years. Development of the screener items was informed by a review of existing tools and mapping of items onto 2019-CFG recommendations. Face and content validity were assessed with experts in public health nutrition and/or dietary assessment (n = 16) and individuals from Government of Canada (n = 14). Cognitive interviews were conducted with English-speaking (n = 16) and French-speaking (n = 16) adults living in Canada to assess face validity and understanding of the screener items. While some modifications were identified to improve relevance or clarity, overall, the screener items were found to be relevant, well-constructed, and clearly worded. This comprehensive process resulted in the Canadian Eating Practices Screener/Questionnaire court canadien sur les pratiques alimentaires, which includes 21 items that assess eating practices recommended in the 2019-CFG. This screener can facilitate monitoring and surveillance efforts of the 2019-CFG eating practices as well as research exploring how these practices are associated with various health outcomes.

Keywords: cognitive interviewing; content validity; dietary guidelines; eating practices; face validity; questionnaire.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Canada
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Nutrition Policy*
  • Nutritional Status