Development and content of a community-based reablement programme (I-MANAGE): a co-creation study

BMJ Open. 2023 Aug 30;13(8):e070890. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070890.


Objectives: As age increases, people generally start experiencing problems related to independent living, resulting in an increased need for long-term care services. Investing in sustainable solutions to promote independent living is therefore essential. Subsequently, reablement is a concept attracting growing interest. Reablement is a person-centred, holistic approach promoting older adults' active participation through daily, social, leisure and physical activities. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and content of I-MANAGE, a model for a reablement programme for community-dwelling older adults.

Design: The development of the programme was performed according to the Medical Research Council framework as part of the TRANS-SENIOR international training and research network. A co-creation design was used, including literature research, observations, interviews, and working group sessions with stakeholders.

Setting and participants: The interviews and working group sessions took place in the Dutch long-term home care context. Stakeholders invited to the individual interviews and working group sessions included care professionals, policymakers, client representatives, informal caregiver representatives, informal caregivers, and scientific experts.

Results: The co-creation process resulted in a 5-phase interdisciplinary primary care programme, called I-MANAGE. The programme focuses on improving the self-management and well-being of older adults by working towards their meaningful goals. During the programme, the person's physical and social environment will be put to optimal use, and sufficient support will be provided to informal caregivers to reduce their burden. Lastly, the programme aims for continuity of care and better communication and coordination.

Conclusion: The I-MANAGE programme can be tailored to the local practices and resources and is therefore suitable for the use in different settings, nationally and internationally. If the programme is implemented as described, it is important to closely monitor the process and results.

Keywords: health services for the aged; patient-centered care; primary health care; quality of life; rehabilitation medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Communication*
  • Ethnicity*
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Independent Living
  • Interdisciplinary Studies