Male and female Fischer 344 rats were maintained on treated drinking water providing dosages of 0 (controls), 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg acrylamide/kg body wt/day for 2 years to assess the chronic toxicity and oncogenic potential of the chemical. The mean body weights of male and female rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day and of male rats receiving 0.5 mg/kg/day were minimally decreased when compared with controls. During the last 4 months of the study, there was an increase in mortality among male and female rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day. A target organ effect, characterized by degeneration of peripheral nerves, was observed in rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day. The incidence of several tumor types was increased in the rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day when compared with controls. In females, increased tumor incidences were observed in the mammary gland, central nervous system, thyroid gland-follicular epithelium, oral tissues, uterus, and clitoral gland. In males the incidence of tumors of the thyroid gland-follicular epithelium and scrotal mesothelium was increased. Male rats receiving 2.0 mg/kg/day also had increased incidence of central nervous system tumors when compared to historical controls but not when compared to concurrent controls. The only tumor incidence which was significantly increased at the 0.5 mg/kg/day level was scrotal mesothelioma. There was no statistically significant increase of any tumor type at the 0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg/day dose levels. However, the incidence of scrotal mesothelioma at the 0.1 mg/kg/day level was greater than that observed in the control group or historically reported in this laboratory.