Analyzing the factors that contribute to the development of embryological classical type of bladder exstrophy

Anat Cell Biol. 2023 Dec 31;56(4):421-427. doi: 10.5115/acb.23.056. Epub 2023 Aug 31.


Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital condition of the pelvis, bladder, and lower abdomen that opens the bladder against the abdominal wall, produces aberrant growth, short penis, upward curvature during erection, wide penis, and undescended testes. Exstrophy affects 1/30,000 newborns. The bladder opens against the abdominal wall in bladder exstrophy, a rare genitourinary condition. This study is vital to provide appropriate therapy choices as a basis to improve patient outcomes. This study may explain bladder exstrophy and provide treatment. Epispadias, secretory placenta, cloacal exstrophy, and other embryonic abnormalities comprise the exstrophy-spades complex. The mesenchymal layer does not migrate from the ectoderm and endoderm layers in the first trimester, affecting the cloacal membrane. Embryological problems define the exstrophy-aspidistra complex, which resembles epimedium, classic bladder, cloacal exstrophy, and other diseases. Urogenital ventral body wall anomalies expose the bladder mucosa, causing bladder exstrophy. Genetic mutations in the Hedgehog cascade pathway, Wnt signal, FGF, BMP4, Alx4, Gli3, and ISL1 cause ventral body wall closure and urinary bladder failure. External factors such as high maternal age, smoking moms, and high maternal body mass index have also been associated to bladder exstrophy. Valproic acid increases bladder exstrophy risk; chemicals and pollutants during pregnancy may increase bladder exstrophy risk. Bladder exstrophy has no identified cause despite these risk factors. Exstrophy reconstruction seals the bladder, improves bowel function, reconstructs the vaginal region, and restores urination.

Keywords: Bladder exstrophy; Congenital abnormalities; Fetal anomalies; Reproductive health; Urogenital system.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

Funding None.