Retrospective Multicenter Observational Study of Immediate Voiding at End of Urinary Sphincter Surgery (REMOVE)

J Urol. 2023 Dec;210(6):865-873. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000003693. Epub 2023 Aug 31.


Purpose: Patients may remain catheterized after artificial urinary sphincter surgery to prevent urinary retention, despite a lack of evidence to support this practice. Our study aims to evaluate the feasibility of outpatient, catheter-free continence surgery using a multi-institutional database. We hypothesize that between catheterized controls and patients without a catheter, there would be no difference in the rate of urinary retention or postoperative complications.

Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing first-time artificial urinary sphincter placement from 2009-2021. Patients were stratified by postoperative catheter status into either no-catheter (leaving the procedure without a catheter) or catheter (postoperative indwelling catheter for ∼24 hours). The primary outcome, urinary retention, was defined as catheterization due to subjective voiding difficulty or documented postvoid residual over 250 mL.

Results: Our study identified 302 catheter and 123 no-catheter patients. Twenty (6.6%) catheter and 9 (7.3%) no-catheter patients developed urinary retention (P = .8). On multivariable analysis, controlling for age, cuff size, radiation history and surgeon, there was no statistically significant association between omitting a catheter and urinary retention (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.13-1.58; P = .2). Furthermore, at 30 months follow-up, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that device survival was 70% (95% CI: 62%-76%) vs 69% (95% CI: 48%-82%) for the catheter and no-catheter group, respectively.

Conclusions: In our multi-institutional cohort, overall retention rates were low (7%) in groups with a catheter and without. Obviating postoperative catheterization facilitates outpatient incontinence surgery without altering reoperation over medium-term follow-up.

Keywords: ambulatory surgical procedures; artificial; equipment failure; stress; urinary incontinence; urinary retention; urinary sphincter.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Urinary Bladder / surgery
  • Urinary Incontinence* / etiology
  • Urinary Retention* / etiology
  • Urinary Retention* / prevention & control
  • Urination