Apatite-coated outer layer eggshell membrane: A novel osteoinductive biohybrid composite for guided bone/tissue regeneration

Biomater Adv. 2023 Nov:154:213605. doi: 10.1016/j.bioadv.2023.213605. Epub 2023 Aug 26.


Hybrid biomimetic materials aim to replicate the organic-inorganic constructs of mineralized tissues. During eggshell formation, the outer surface of the eggshell membrane (ESM) promotes calcium carbonate nucleation, while the inner one prevents mineralization toward the egg white and yolk. In the current study, the outer surface of the ESM acted as a heteronucleant in calcium phosphate precipitation by the vapor diffusion sitting drop method, while the inner one remained unmineralized. The aim was to fabricate a 2D biomaterial with dual functions, osteoinductive on one side and protective against cell invasion on the other side. The microstructural, physicochemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of the mineralized ESM were characterized by XRD, TGA, XPS, FTIR/Raman, HR-SEM, and mechanical testing techniques. The cytocompatibility and osteoinductive ability were assessed by biological assays of cell viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation on human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Results indicate that the outer surface of the ESM induces the heterogeneous precipitation of carbonate-apatite phase depicting biomimetic features. In addition, the apatite/ESM shows a much higher cytocompatibility than the pristine ESM and promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs more efficiently. Overall, the apatite/ESM composite exhibits compositional, crystalline, mechanical, and biological properties that resemble those of mineralized tissues, rendering it an approachable and novel material especially useful in guided tissue/bone regeneration.

Keywords: Apatite mineralization; Collagen I; Cytocompatibility; Eggshell membrane; Human mesenchymal stromal cells; Mechanical properties; Osteogenic differentiation; Osteopontin; Vapor diffusion.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apatites / chemistry
  • Bone and Bones
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Egg Shell*
  • Humans
  • Osteogenesis*


  • Apatites