B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) target loss is considered to be a rare event that mediates multiple myeloma (MM) resistance to anti-BCMA chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) or bispecific T cell engager (TCE) therapies. Emerging data report that downregulation of G-protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 member D (GPRC5D) protein often occurs at relapse after anti-GPRC5D CAR T therapy. To examine the tumor-intrinsic factors that promote MM antigen escape, we performed combined bulk and single-cell whole-genome sequencing and copy number variation analysis of 30 patients treated with anti-BCMA and/or anti-GPRC5D CAR T/TCE therapy. In two cases, MM relapse post-TCE/CAR T therapy was driven by BCMA-negative clones harboring focal biallelic deletions at the TNFRSF17 locus at relapse or by selective expansion of pre-existing subclones with biallelic TNFRSF17 loss. In another five cases of relapse, newly detected, nontruncating, missense mutations or in-frame deletions in the extracellular domain of BCMA negated the efficacies of anti-BCMA TCE therapies, despite detectable surface BCMA protein expression. In the present study, we also report four cases of MM relapse with biallelic mutations of GPRC5D after anti-GPRC5D TCE therapy, including two cases with convergent evolution where multiple subclones lost GPRC5D through somatic events. Immunoselection of BCMA- or GPRC5D-negative or mutant clones is an important tumor-intrinsic driver of relapse post-targeted therapies. Mutational events on BCMA confer distinct sensitivities toward different anti-BCMA therapies, underscoring the importance of considering the tumor antigen landscape for optimal design and selection of targeted immunotherapies in MM.
© 2023. The Author(s).