Examining the Impact of Selected Sociodemographic Factors and Cancer-Related Fatalistic Beliefs on Patient Engagement via Health Information Technology Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis

JMIR Aging. 2023 Oct 20:6:e44777. doi: 10.2196/44777.

Abstract

Background: Despite the role of health information technology (HIT) in patient engagement processes and government incentives for HIT development, research regarding HIT is lacking among older adults with a high burden of chronic diseases such as cancer. This study examines the role of selected sociodemographic factors and cancer-related fatalistic beliefs on patient engagement expressed through HIT use for patient engagement in adults aged ≥65 years. We controlled for cancer diagnosis to account for its potential influence on patient engagement.

Objective: This study has 2 aims: to investigate the role of sociodemographic factors such as race, education, poverty index, and psychosocial factors of cancer fatalistic beliefs in accessing and using HIT in older adults and to examine the association between access and use of HIT in the self-management domain of patient activation that serves as a precursor to patient engagement.

Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of a subset of the Health Information National Trend Survey (Health Information National Trend Survey 4, cycle 3). The subset included individuals aged ≥65 years with and without a cancer diagnosis. The relationships between access to and use of HIT to several sociodemographic variables and psychosocial factors of fatalistic beliefs were analyzed. Logistic and linear regression models were fit to study these associations.

Results: This study included 180 individuals aged ≥65 years with a cancer diagnosis and 398 without a diagnosis. This analysis indicated that having less than a college education level (P=<.001), being an individual from an ethnic and minority group (P=<.001), and living in poverty (P=.001) were significantly associated with decreased access to HIT. Reduced HIT use was associated with less than a college education (P=.001) and poverty(P=.02). This analysis also indicated that fatalistic beliefs about cancer were significantly associated with lower HIT use (P=.03). Specifically, a 1-point increase in the cancer fatalistic belief score was associated with a 36% decrease in HIT use. We found that controlling for cancer diagnosis did not affect the outcomes for sociodemographic variables or fatalistic beliefs about cancer. However, patients with access to HIT had a self-management domain of patient activation (SMD) score of 0.21 points higher (P=.003) compared with patients who did not have access. SMD score was higher by 0.28 points (P=.002) for individuals who used HIT and 0.14 points higher (P=.04) who had a prior diagnosis of cancer.

Conclusions: Sociodemographic factors (education, race, poverty, and cancer fatalistic beliefs) impact HIT access and use in older adults, regardless of prior cancer diagnosis. Among older adults, HIT users report higher self-management, which is essential for patient activation and engagement.

Keywords: digital health; health information technology; mobile phone; older adults; patient portals; self-management.